Publications

Publications

This page contains a complete list of all CPS related publications in the Electonic Systems Group.

  1. B. van der Sanden, J. Bastos, J. Voeten, M. Geilen, M. Reniers, T. Basten, J. Jacobs, and R. Schiffelers, “Compositional Specification of Functionality and Timing of Manufacturing Systems,” in 2016 Forum on Specification and Design Languages, FDL, Bremen, Germany, 2016.
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] This paper introduces a formal modeling approach for compositional specification of both functionality and timing of manufacturing systems. Functionality aspects can be considered orthogonally to timing aspects. The functional aspects are specified using two abstraction levels; high-level activities and lower level actions. Design of a functionally correct controller is possible by looking only at the activity level, abstracting from the different execution orders of actions and their timing. As a result, controller design can be performed on a much smaller state space compared to an explicit model where timing and actions are present. The performance of the controller can be analyzed and optimized by taking into account the timing characteristics. Since formal semantics are given in terms of a (max,+) state space, various existing performance analysis techniques can be used. We illustrate the approach, including performance analysis, on an example manufacturing system.
    @inproceedings{sanden2016fdl,
      author = {van der Sanden, Bram and Bastos, Jo\~ao and Voeten, Jeroen and Geilen, Marc and Reniers, Michel and Basten, Twan and Jacobs, Johan and Schiffelers, Ramon},
      title = {Compositional Specification of Functionality and Timing of Manufacturing Systems},
      booktitle = {2016 Forum on Specification and Design Languages, FDL},
      month = sep,
      year = {2016},
      address = {Bremen, Germany}
    }
    
  2. R. Medina, S. Stuijk, D. Goswami, and T. Basten, “Reconfigurable pipelined sensing for image-based control,” in 11th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2016.
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] Image-based control systems are becoming com- mon in domains such as robotics, healthcare and industrial automation. Coping with a long sample period because of the latency of the image processing algorithm is an open challenge. Modern multi-core platforms allow to address this challenge by pipelining the sensing algorithm. Often, such systems share the resources with other tasks. We show that the performance of an image-based controller can be improved by pipelining the image processing algorithm on unallocated cores. It can be further improved by dynamically allocating (i.e. reconfiguring) cores that are temporarily not used by other tasks to the sensing pipeline. We present a state-based modelling strategy for pipelined and reconfigurable pipelined sensing. We introduce a control design strategy for reconfigurable pipelined systems that assures stability and shows improvement in the control performance.
    @inproceedings{medina2016sies,
      title = {Reconfigurable pipelined sensing    for image-based control},
      author = {Medina, Robinson and Stuijk, Sander and Goswami, Dip and Basten, Twan},
      booktitle = {11th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems},
      year = {2016},
      month = {in press},
      publisher = {IEEE}
    }
    
  3. J. van Pinxten, M. Geilen, T. Basten, U. Waqas, and L. J. Somers, “Online heuristic for the Multi-Objective Generalized traveling salesman problem,” in 2016 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference Exhibition, DATE 2016, Dresden, Germany, March 14-18, 2016, pp. 822–825.
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] Today’s manufacturing systems are typically complex cyber-physical systems where the physical and control aspects interact with the scheduling decisions. Optimizing such facilities requires ordering jobs and configuring the manufacturing system for each job. This optimization problem can be described as a Multi-Objective Generalized TSP where conflicting objectives lead to a trade-off space. This is the first work to address this TSP variant, introducing a compositional heuristic suitable to online application.
    @inproceedings{pinxten2016mogtsp,
      author = {van Pinxten, Joost and Geilen, Marc and Basten, Twan and Waqas, Umar and Somers, Lou J.},
      title = {Online heuristic for the Multi-Objective Generalized traveling salesman
          problem},
      booktitle = {2016 Design, Automation {\&} Test in Europe Conference {\&}
          Exhibition, {DATE} 2016, Dresden, Germany, March 14-18},
      pages = {822--825},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  4. U. Waqas, M. Geilen, J. Kandelaars, L. Somers, T. Basten, S. Stuijk, P. Vestjens, and H. Corporaal, “A re-entrant flowshop heuristic for online scheduling of the paper path in a large scale printer,” in Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), 2015, 2015, pp. 573–578.
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] A Large Scale Printer (LSP) is a Cyber Physical System (CPS) printing thousands of sheets per day with high quality. The print requests arrive at run-time requiring online scheduling. We capture the LSP scheduling problem as online scheduling of re-entrant flowshops with sequence dependent setup times and relative due dates with makespan minimization as the scheduling criterion. Exhaustive approaches like Mixed Integer Programming can be used, but they are compute intensive and not suited for online use. We present a novel heuristic for scheduling of LSPs that on average requires 0.3 seconds per sheet to find schedules for industrial test cases. We compare the schedules to lower bounds, to schedules generated by the current scheduler and schedules generated by a modified version of the classical NEH (MNEH) heuristic [1], [2]. On average, the proposed heuristic generates schedules that are 40% shorter than the current scheduler, have an average difference of 25% compared to the estimated lower bounds and generates schedules with less than 67% of the makespan of schedules generated by the MNEH heuristic.
    @inproceedings{waqas2015flowshop,
      author = {Waqas, U. and Geilen, M. and Kandelaars, J. and Somers, L. and Basten, T. and Stuijk, S. and Vestjens, P. and Corporaal, H.},
      booktitle = {Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), 2015},
      title = {A re-entrant flowshop heuristic for online scheduling of the paper path in a large scale printer},
      year = {2015},
      month = mar,
      pages = {573-578},
      keywords = {flow shop scheduling;integer programming;minimisation;printers;CPS;LSP scheduling problem;MNEH heuristic;cyber physical system;large scale printer;makespan minimization;mixed integer programming;online paper path scheduling;online reentrant flowshop scheduling;reentrant flowshop heuristic;relative due dates;sequence dependent setup times;Job shop scheduling;Printers;Printing;Processor scheduling;Productivity;Schedules}
    }
    
  5. B. van der Sanden, M. Reniers, M. Geilen, T. Basten, J. Jacobs, J. Voeten, and R. Schiffelers, “Modular Model-Based Supervisory Controller Design for Wafer Logistics in Lithography Machines,” in Proceedings of MODELS 2015, 2015.
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] Development of high-level supervisory controllers is an important challenge in the design of high-tech systems. It has become a significant issue due to increased complexity, combined with demands for verified quality, time to market, ease of development, and integration of new functionality. To deal with these challenges, model-based engineering approaches are suggested as a cost-effective way to support easy adaptation, validation, synthesis, and verification of controllers. This paper presents an industrial case study on modular design of a supervisory controller for wafer logistics in lithography machines. The uncontrolled system and control requirements are modeled independently in a modular way, using small, loosely coupled and minimally restrictive extended finite automata. The multiparty synchronization mechanism that is part of the specification formalism provides clear advantages in terms of modularity, traceability, and adaptability of the model. We show that being able to refer to variables and states of automata in guard expressions and state-based requirements, enabled by the use of extended finite automata, provides concise models. Additionally, we show how modular synthesis allows construction of local supervisors that ensure safety of parts of the system, since monolithic synthesis is not feasible for our industrial case.
    @inproceedings{sanden2015modeling,
      author = {van der Sanden, B. and Reniers, M. and Geilen, M. and Basten, T. and Jacobs, J. and Voeten, J. and Schiffelers, R.},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of MODELS 2015},
      title = {Modular Model-Based Supervisory Controller Design for Wafer Logistics in Lithography Machines},
      year = {2015}
    }
    
  6. A. R. B. Behrouzian, D. Goswami, T. Basten, M. Geilen, and H. A. Ara, “Multi-Constraint Multi-Processor Resource Allocation,” in Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation (SAMOS), 2015 International Conference on, 2015, pp. 338–346.
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] This work proposes a Multi-Constraint Resource Allocation (MuCoRA) method for applications from multiple domains onto multi-processors. In particular, we address a mapping problem for multiple throughput-constrained streaming applications and multiple latency-constrained feedback control applications onto a multi-processor platform running under a Time-Division Multiple-Access (TDMA) policy. The main objective of the proposed method is to reduce resource usage while meeting constraints from both these two domains (i.e., throughput and latency constraints). We show by experiments that the overall resource usage for this mapping problem can be reduced by distributing the allocated resource (i.e., TDMA slots) to the control applications over the TDMA wheel instead of allocating consecutive slots.
    @inproceedings{behrouzian2015multi,
      title = {Multi-Constraint Multi-Processor Resource Allocation},
      author = {Behrouzian, Amir RB and Goswami, Dip and Basten, Twan and Geilen, Marc and Ara, Hadi Alizadeh},
      booktitle = {Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation (SAMOS), 2015 International Conference on},
      pages = {338--346},
      year = {2015},
      organization = {IEEE}
    }
    
  7. S. Adyanthaya, H. A. Ara, J. Bastos, A. Behrouzian, R. M. Sánchez, J. van Pinxten, B. van der Sanden, U. Waqas, T. Basten, H. Corporaal, R. Frijns, M. Geilen, D. Goswami, S. Stuijk, M. Reniers, and J. Voeten, “xCPS: A tool to eXplore Cyber Physical Systems,” in 2015 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2015, New York, NY, USA, 2015, pp. 3:1–3:8.
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] Cyber-Physical Systems (cps) play an important role in the modern high-tech industry. Designing such systems is a challenging task due to the multi-disciplinary nature of these systems, and the range of abstraction levels involved. To facilitate hands-on experience with such systems, we develop a cyber-physical platform that aids in research and education on cps. This paper describes this platform, which contains all typical cps components. The platform is used in various research and education projects for bachelor, master, and PhD students. We discuss the platform and a number of projects and the educational opportunities they provide.
    @inproceedings{2015-esweek-abehrouzian-xcps_tool,
      author = {Adyanthaya, Shreya and Ara, Hadi Alizadeh and Bastos, Jo\~{a}o and Behrouzian, Amir and S\'{a}nchez, R\'{o}binson Medina and van Pinxten, Joost and van der Sanden, Bram and Waqas, Umar and Basten, Twan and Corporaal, Henk and Frijns, Raymond and Geilen, Marc and Goswami, Dip and Stuijk, Sander and Reniers, Michel and Voeten, Jeroen},
      title = {{xCPS: A tool to eXplore Cyber Physical Systems}},
      month = oct,
      year = {2015},
      booktitle = {2015 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2015},
      series = {WESE'15},
      pages = {3:1--3:8},
      publisher = {ACM},
      address = {New York, NY, USA}
    }
    
  8. U. Waqas, M. Geilen, S. Stuijk, J. V. Pinxten, T. Basten, L. Somers, and H. Corporaal, “A Fast Estimator of Performance with respect to the Design Parameters of Self Re-entrant Flowshops.”
    [Abstract] [BibTeX] [ Download] Self re-entrant flowshops consist of machines which process jobs several times. They are found in applications like TFT-LCD assembly, LED manufacturing and industrial printing. The structure of a self re-entrant flowshop influences its performance. To get better performance while reducing costs a fast performance estimation method can be used to explore the trade-offs between the structure and the performance during the design process. We present a novel performance estimator that uses the information in the jobs being processed to analyse the trade-offs. We study the impact of the design parameters of an industrial printer using the performance estimator with an average estimation time of 1.1 milliseconds per job and with an average accuracy of not less than 96%.
    @unpublished{waqas2016dsd,
      author = {Waqas, U. and Geilen, M. and Stuijk, S. and Pinxten, J.V. and Basten, T. and Somers, L. and Corporaal, H.},
      title = {A Fast Estimator of Performance with respect to the Design Parameters of Self Re-entrant Flowshops},
      note = {In Progress for publication in DSD 2016},
      optmonth = {September},
      optyear = {2016}
    }